The Factors That Affect Your Pennsylvania Auto Insurance Rates

What factors affect the cost of your Pennsylvania auto insurance rates? It is important to understand these factors in order to find cheap Pennsylvania auto insurance rates because after all; who want to pay more for their PA car insurance policy than they have to?

The state of Pennsylvania like many others has their own requirements when it comes to automobile insurance. The state that has approximately 12 million people is home to many big cities such as Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. Rates change accordingly to where people live and what they drive. It is important to understand that rates are not the same for everyone and that there are many different things that you can do to lower your rates. Below you will find out some valuable information about automobile insurance rates in Pennsylvania and some key information about how rates are calculated.

Pennsylvania Auto Insurance Rates Of The Past

Although there is not exact figure of the average rate of car insurance premium that the everyday Pennsylvania resident pays nowadays, there are statistics that show how much they had paid in the past. In the year 2003 the average Pennsylvania premium was about $909 compared to the national average of about $914. It is important to understand that the premiums have been on the rise since then simply because automobiles have been converted to a necessity instead of a luxury. It is also known that the first drop of automobile insurance rates came in 2007 when most premiums dropped from 0.5 to 1% and in 2008 and beyond experts predict that the rates will go up again!

Determinants Of Automobile Insurance Rates In Pennsylvania

The PA automobile insurance industry like many others has determinants on how their rates are calculated. It is important to understand these important factors because the more you know about what determines your rate, the more money you may be able to save.

1. Place of Residence: One of the most important determinants of your PA car insurance rates is your place of residence. If you live in a rural community you will not pay that much in car insurance simply because the likelihood of an accident is not that great. On the other hand if you live in a big city like the ones mentioned above, you will have to pay more per month. Add to the many traffic jams and the number of accidents and the risk of your vehicle being stolen and the premium will increase to a great degree.

2. Your Age and Gender: This is one of the most important determinants of the rates in Pennsylvania automobile insurance industry. The rates in the auto insurance business are high when you are a teenager and you are starting to drive, are lower when you are a middle aged American (usually from 26-50) and then they get high again when you become a senior citizen. A reason for this is that teens and senior citizens tend to have a higher accident risk than do middle aged people. Your gender will also be a determinant because although there is a common widespread idea that women drive worse than men, it is men who get in more accidents than women because they tend to drive more aggressively. Because of this men’s rates are usually higher than those of women.

3. Vehicle Type and Year: This is very important because it is the most used determinant when it comes to insurance companies coming forth with a rate. Every year insurance companies get a top 100 countdown of the cars with the most injuries after an accident and the ones that are at the highest risk of being stolen. Those cars at the top of both categories will be the ones that will be expensive to insure because they are of more “risk” to the insurance company. Another thing important to highlight and that may be bad for those drivers that own sports cars is that insurance companies usually charge those drivers a lot more for car insurance. The reason for this is that in the automobile insurance business speed is associated with accidents and although some may argue that it is not fair to discriminate against sports car owners, the auto insurance industry does just that.

4. Credit Report: Many people don’t understand why this has anything to do with the rate of your automobile insurance. The truth is that for any insurance in the market nowadays, credit report is very important. If you have a good credit report you will have to pay less money than someone who doesn’t have good credit. This is simply because auto insurance companies are protecting themselves from those drivers that cannot pay regular monthly premiums.

Pennsylvania Automobiles With The Highest Car Insurance Rates

Most Expensive for Theft:

1. Four-Wheel drive Cadillac Escalade

2. Chevy Corvette Convertible

3. Four-Wheel drive Lincoln Navigator

4. Four door Jeep Cherokee

5. BMW Series 3 Convertible

Most Expensive for Injury:

1. Four Door Suzuki Esteem

2. Four Door Kia Rio

3. Two Door Mitsubishi Mirage

4. Four Door Kia Spectra

Most Expensive for Collision:

1. Four-Wheel Drive Subaru Impreza

2. Four Door Lexus IS 300

3. Two Door Hyundai Tiburon

4. Two Door Porsche 911

5. Acura RSX

Pennsylvania Auto Automobiles With The Lowest Car Insurance Rates

Least Expensive for Theft:

1. Buick LeSabre

2. Buick Park Avenue

3. Volvo 720 Station Wagon

4. Four-Door Mercury Grand Marquis

Least Expensive for Injury:

1. Two-wheel drive GMC Sierra 2500

2. Chevy Silverado 2500

3. Four-Wheel Drive GMC Yukon

4. Four-Wheel Drive GMC Sierra 2500

5. Two-Wheel Drive Chevy Tahoe

Least Expensive for Collision:

1. Two-Wheel Drive Ford Excursion

2. Four-Wheel Drive GMC Safari

3. GMC Sierra 2500

4. Four-Wheel Drive GMC Yukon

Go Find The Cheapest PA Car Insurance Rates!

If you paid attention through the entire article you may have seen that rates do not only depend on one thing, but they are many factors that work together to determine your PA car insurance rates. If somehow you fit under the categories of factors that will allow you to have a lower rate then congratulations! If on the other hand you live in a big city, drive a sports car, and your vehicle is at the top of the lost of most stolen vehicles then don’t panic; you can still find a well priced policy. Just make sure that you look around and do you homework because the more you search the better your rate will turn out to be!

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Importance of Performance Parts in an Automobile

Everyone loves cars and bikes. When we speak about automobiles, we often indulge in a talk discussing power and performance of a vehicle. Many individuals love their cars. They often try to find ways to increase the performance of the car or a bike. The performance of a vehicle is increased by replacing the regular parts with “performance parts”. The selection of a performance part depends on the need of the user. One wishes to increase the power while other may wish to increase the mileage. Every need has performance part and is developed to deliver the same. It is necessary to select the best part for the vehicle.

There are important factors that one should consider while they look out for such parts in the market. The process of selecting a performance part is tedious as there are many companies in the market. Buying an expensive part does not really mean that one has the best solution available to increase the performance of the vehicle. It is necessary to take into account the model and year of manufacturing of the car to select the best parts for improvement in performance. There are people who indulge in extreme actions to fulfill the need to replace a regular part with a performance part.

The addition of such parts increases the value of the vehicle. Customization has good demand in the market. A vehicle that has been customized with high performing parts installed in it sells for a good price. Such vehicles are often displayed at motor shows. People love cars that are highly performing. The inclusion of the parts increases and modifies the engine. There is an increase in power development, the balance of the vehicle, improvement to exhaust system and braking system. Every user has a set of specifications and work through it by installing the right part.

Performance parts are also used by regular drivers and individuals who love to modify their vehicle. This improves the working condition of the vehicle. When there is an increase in the performance of the vehicle, there is an equal increase of life span. Reputed and high quality parts from leading manufacture are expensive. Though most people do not have the luxury to afford such expensive parts, they can still improve the performance by choosing locally manufactured parts. They have the same functionality as that of a branded part. Searching for such parts is a good practice to reduce the overall expenditure.

There are a number of parts available that improve the performance of the vehicle. Searching over the Internet will give complete details about these parts. Replacing the parts in the correct way is essential. Looking for a reputed mechanic is also essential. The mechanic should possess experience in handling different vehicle and replacing the parts properly. It is also important to take advice before changing a part in the vehicle. Minor changes can improve power development, safety features and comfort of a vehicle. Choose the best and affordable parts that are high quality for improvement in overall performance of the vehicle.

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Korean Vehicle Parts

The Korean auto industry is one of the largest in the world. Today, it holds the fifth spot in terms of volume of production and the sixth spot in terms of volume of export. While it was originally engaged merely in assembling of parts, which were imported from Japan as well as the United States, Korea is currently one of the most advanced automobile producing nations in the world. The industry produces several in-house models, displaying not just its capabilities in regard to design, performance, as well as technology.

The Korean automobile industry was started in 1955, when Choi Mu-seong, along with his three brothers, set up an engine in a modified US Jeep and came up with the first Korean car, called the "Sibal", which means new start.

Then in 1960, Sinjin Automobiles came up with Sinjin Publica, which was manufactured under a licensing agreement with Toyota. For the development of the Korean automobile industry, the government of Korea declared the "Automobile Industry Promotion Policy". As a result, foreign automakers were stopped from operating in the Korean nation, except in case of joint ventures with the local business enterprises. The efforts led to companies, which were involved with other businesses enter the automobile industry. This led to the formation of three major companies in 1962, ie Kyeongseong Precision Industry, Ha Dong-hwan Automobile Industry Co. and Saenara Automobile. As it is, Saenara Automobile was the first automobile maker in Korea, which was equipped with the latest assembly facilities.

Later on Kyeongseong Precision Industry was changed to "Kia Industry", whereas Ha Dong-hwan Automobile Industry Co. SsangYong Motor Company. In 1965 Asia Motors Company was set up and Hyundai Motor Company was formed in 1968 in technical cooperation of Ford Motor Company. However, during this period, these companies were merely engaged in automotive assembling, importing parts from their overseas partners. Then, in 1972, Shinjin and General Motors had a joint venture General Motors Korea was formed, which was later on renamed as Saehan Motors in the year 1976.

In 1975 Hyundai Pony, the first automobile developed in Korea was made. Hyundai Motors did this after engaging as vice-president, George Henry Turnbull who previously worked for British Leyland Motor Corporation. This car comprised of design from Italdesign, machine press from France, transmission & engine from Mitsubishi, moldings from Ogihara Mold Company, technology transfer from Perkinson and Funds from Barclays and France Suez.

Hyundai struck another first with the export of the Pony to Republic of Ecuador in the year 1976, and made Hyundai became the first Korean car to be exported. Then in 1982, Saehan Motors was acquired by the Daewoo Group and it was later renamed to Daewoo Motors.

Energy crisis in 1979 brought about a bad patch for the Korean car industry. The Korean government tried to address this situation, with is "Automobile Industry Rationalization Policy." The government also postponed the import liberalization of automobiles. All these steps helped the Korean auto industry in a big way and helped it to recover the losses accrued due to the recessive condition of that time.

By the 1980's, several new developments took place and Korean auto industry was now focusing primarily on the development of mass production systems, keeping in view the exports aspect. In 1986, Hyundai motors entered the market in United States with Excel, which became extremely popular. As a matter of fact, it set up a record of selling the largest number of automobiles in the first year of business.

As it is, Hyundai motors is by far the most popular Korean brands. Apart from the various cars that it manufactures, it also supplies various auto parts and accessories. Some of the most popular auto parts of the company include:

1. Hyundai Camshaft Seal Kit
This high quality camshaft front seal set is designed as a direct fit replacement for the stock camshaft front seals. Priced at $ 34.23, this is an amazing option for your car. Its immense popularity has been a major reason that has led to its mass production.

2. Hyundai Nitrous System
Officially known as Nitrous Express, this Nitrous System is accompanied with a number of attractive features, such as stage one EFI, gains of 35-150 horsepower on the wheels, fuel line adapters, shark nozzle, extra long stainless steel supply along with several other components for complete installation. The systems do not need any engine modification, work on a stock fuel pump, and need no timing retards. They offer the best horsepower on demand value and amazing increase in power as well as acceleration. It is extremely durable and reliable. Available at a price of $ 710.22, this wonderful kit is definitely a nice buy.

3. Hyundai Distributor Cap
This distributor cap is an original equipment replacement. It installs as well as operates like your original. Available at a price of $ 18.38, this distributor cap is definitely a steal.

As it is, the Korean car industry offers you the best products and so it is definitely a good idea, to make use of it.

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National Car Auctions – Finding the Right Car at a National Auction

Joining national car auctions is a great opportunity to find a great vehicle at an unbelievably affordable price. Every year different local and state governments and law enforcement agencies regularly auction off used cars. These automobiles are seized or impounded vehicles from the various departments. They are then accumulated and sold off at public auto auctions. The primary reason behind this is not to gain money for the government but to recover expenses they incurred for towing and storage of the vehicles while under their custody. This is also the reason why they can sell these used cars at these vehicle auctions for a bargain.

Whose Car Am I Buying?

When you participate in national car auctions, the used automobiles that are up for grabs can come from anywhere. However, the vehicles for a government auto auction are vehicles seized from criminals. These vehicles are usually seized by the government and sold off at auto auctions. If you are lucky, many dealerships who might be involved in criminal activity have brand new automobiles seized and they almost always end up in these car auctions. Apart from law violators, the used cars could come from government organizations that retire their vehicles. This would include police cars and other government service vehicles.

Most of these used cars have racked up on mileage. However, they are usually well maintained. There are also seized vehicles coming from banks and lending companies. These were confiscated when a debtor fails to pay back their loans. To recover from their losses, the banks and lending companies sell these vehicles at car auctions.

All of the vehicles sold at national car auctions are different. They have different models and make. It is necessary for you to do your research and check the used cars thoroughly before placing your bid. Determine what type of automobile you are looking for before heading out to the auction field.

Once you have found a car that you want, make sure to check it thoroughly. It would be helpful if you could check the Vehicle Identification number or VIN and mileage. This will help you get a rough idea of the car that you want to get. It is also imperative that you understand how the car auction process works like what type of details they would require in case you won a bid. The Internet is a great place find answers about car auctions, you just need to spend some effort looking for it.

National car auctions have become an affordable way for many people to find the car of their dreams.

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Motivation by Listening

Listening skills are a very powerful motivation factor.

Hardly any people are actually good at listening, being more interested in what they are going to say next. When you think about how many people you have met who can remember your name or what you said, you’ll find it is very few indeed. That generally seems to be the norm so when you do meet people who you think are good listeners, your feelings towards these particular people are usually more positive.

By that I mean you likely would place more trust and confidence in them. So because most of us find it very hard to listen, we are surprised by somebody who does listen and we tend to endow them with greater capabilities than they may possess.

This is the secret of motivation by listening. If we can learn to listen well, the people we listen to will be motivated and inspired by our attention.

Most salespeople consider themselves to be good talkers instead of listeners. You hear people saying: “He is a born salesman, he’s got the gift of the gab”. Many people believe that the speaker holds the power and that the listener is meek or docile. Actually you will find that the good listener has much more power in any conversation. The listener is able to gather more information than the talker and armed with information can then produce the desired result.

When two people are conversing, the one who really dominates the conversation is the person who is asking questions and listening carefully to the answers. When we want to motivate somebody to give their best effort, or to follow our direction, we will do so more effectively by listening to their responses to the situation.

Therefore the real job of the salesman is to listen carefully to his customers and understand their needs and concerns. Although they might ask you a few questions first, most successful salespeople will agree with this.

So what steps should you follow to create motivation by listening?

1. Repeat or rephrase so you can clarify the information given

2. Give useful information in return.

3. Listen for the emotions. Selling especially is often based on emotional factors more that objective facts.

4. Look people in the eye and make some reassuring gestures or tones to encourage the speaker.

5. Be careful not to distract the speaker – give them your full attention while they are talking.

6. Show that the discussion is important to you too.

Listening is an essential skill for making and keeping relationships. When you are acknowledged as a good listener people confide in you and trust you; as a manager of people or as a salesperson this is your route to success.

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What Is Motivation

Motivation is the characteristic that is required in order to achieve anything in life; without it you will give up at the first sign of adversity. It means to inspire, instigate and encourage a person to do their best. Motivation will compel a person to think “If I can’t, then I must” and will cause them to do whatever it takes to become successful. If you inspire motivation it can change your life. You will be inspired to get what you want regardless of what people tell you that you can not do. I have personally seen people apply the motivation factors in life to get from poverty to a life filled with abundance.

Do you think you possess the quality? Only you can answer this question. Take a honest look at yourself; do you find yourself pursuing your goals everyday? Are you doing something to work towards them regardless of what is going on in your life? If you are then you; then my friend you do possess this characteristic and you will reach all your goals. I wake up at 5:00 in the morning to get started on my goals. I am passionate about reaching all my goals. Do you find yourself doing this or are you making excuses of why you can not work on a goal?

It will give you the passion to begin exploring what it is you really want to do in life, and give you the courage to follow your dreams. If you do not like where you currently are and are living life everyday unhappy and frustrated; it probably is because you do not possess any motivation for what you are currently doing. It is up to you to find out what you would really like to be doing with your life. What kind of lifestyle do you want? What kind of career do you want? Do you actually know what it is that would make you happy and excited about getting up out of bed in the morning?

This is a strong quality for anyone to possess; and you can only possess it when you set a burning desire to be do have something in life. No one can give it to you. It can change a persons life in many ways. It can change the way you think, and when you become involved with personal development and become a much more positive individual motivation will get you out of your negative environment.

It is the fuel that inspires us to reach our goals and achieve what we truly desire. It also allows us to keep getting up and moving forward when we get knocked down. Getting motivated and staying motivated gives us the energy we require to reach our goals in the shortest amount of time possible. It is required to meet our goals and do anything purposeful in life. Without it you will not want to get out of bed, clean the house, walk the dogs or do anything at all. Being successful in life and motivation go hand in hand. When you learn how to achieve motivation for something you truly desire; nothing can stop you from having it. So think about it; what truly motivates you then take action towards it and watch it become your reality.

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Self Motivation and Its Importance

Self motivation is very important. There are several reasons for self motivation being so important in a person’s life. Everyone needs to be self motivated.

These days, with so many challenges and a lot of competition one needs to survive, self motivation works like confidence enhancer. It boosts once enthusiasm and provides energy to work.

Self motivation is known as the most important factor in your life. If you are looking for success in any area of your life, you need self motivation. Self motivation plays an important role in enhancing your self esteem. It cultivates a desire to do something in life. Experts in the past have believed and even proved that when self motivation is combined with self determination, one can easily move mountains and find water in deserts.

There are several things one can get motivated with. People get motivated by their strong belief in the almighty. They can even get motivated by an experience they have had or by any other factor. These things just encourage you to change your perspective in life. One can change in to a better person or a better business person with self motivation.

People usually go through happy and sad times in their lives. When thing go awry, you need to support yourself, your family and people around you. This needs a good amount of energy force in you. When providing support and encouragement to your family and friends, you need to be really strong.

Some people are lucky to have good support in the times of pathos. However, some are left alone and require a lot of courage to survive tough times. At such times, one need to get motivates or motivates oneself. Lack of self motivation at such times can be damaging and even complicate your life further.

Mentioned below are some strong reasons on why you require self motivation:

o Self motivation is extremely important when it comes to accepting challenges and opportunities in life.

o The force of self motivation helps in planning your life and easing the difficulties.

o Self motivation provides a new sense of purpose and direction to your life.

o Self motivation is important to provide enthusiasm in life.

o Self motivation lets you live a fulfilling life.

o You can empower and encourage yourself to face tough times and competition in life with the help of self motivation.

o Self motivations fill you with positive energy and boost your enthusiasm.

o Self motivation is important for your existence. It provides you an identity for yourself.

Motivation is a kind of driving force that encourages an individual to get going. It is a kind of boost to the self confidence, faith and inner conscience of a person. All of us look for some kind of motivation in life. It is almost impossible to face a competition, achieve success of accomplish a goal without motivation.

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Motivation Theory

The word motivation is coined from the Latin word “movere”, which means to move. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it direction. The term motivation theory is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. It is regarded as one of the most important areas of study in the field of organizational behavior. There are two different categories of motivation theories such as content theories, and process theories. Even though there are different motivation theories, none of them are universally accepted.

Also known as need theory, the content theory of motivation mainly focuses on the internal factors that energize and direct human behavior. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzeberg’s motivator-hygiene theory (Herzeberg’s dual factors theory), and McClelland’s learned needs or three-needs theory are some of the major content theories.

Of the different types of content theories, the most famous content theory is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs. Maslow introduced five levels of basic needs through his theory. Basic needs are categorized as physiological needs, safety and security needs, needs of love, needs for self esteem and needs for self-actualization.

Just like Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, ERG theory explains existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Through dual factors theory, Herzeberg describes certain factors in the workplace which result in job satisfaction. McClelland’s learned needs or three-needs theory uses a projective technique called the Thematic Aptitude Test (TAT) so as to evaluate people based on three needs: power, achievement, and affiliation. People with high need of power take action in a way that influences the other’s behavior.

Another type of motivation theory is process theory. Process theories of motivation provide an opportunity to understand thought processes that influence behavior. The major process theories of motivation include Adams’ equity theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory, goal-setting theory, and reinforcement theory. Expectancy, instrumentality, and valence are the key concepts explained in the expectancy theory. Goal setting theory suggests that the individuals are motivated to reach set goals. It also requires that the set goals should be specific. Reinforcement theory is concerned with controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences.

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How to Win the Financial Battle Vs Your Automobile

Think in the Long Term (for Models)

Buy the car you want – but only after it is at least two years old, and three would be better. By doing this, you automatically save hundreds of thousands of dollars over your lifetime.

When I was 23, I wanted to buy a nice four-door sedan, and I was drawn to the Cadillac STS. The new model had a base price of more $50,000, and with any kind of little extras the sticker was almost $55,000. I was doing very well at a young age, but I wasn’t doing that well to blow 50 grand on a new car.

I was thumbing through my local paper (yes, this was before the Internet changed everything) and saw an ad for a 2½ year old Cadillac STS for $19,500. The car had less than 40,000 miles on it and came with an extended warranty to 90,000 miles. It was gorgeous, shiny and just serviced.

It was an attractive price since the first owner was eating the depreciation.

According to the average car will lose 11 percent of its value the second you roll it off the lot and an additional 15 percent to 20 percent the first year you own it. The second-year depreciation (loss) is another 15 percent, for a loss of at least 45 percent over the first two years.

Depreciation is usually calculated off of the base price, not the extras. This could be the sport package that raises the price $10,000 but only gives you $2,000 back after the first year or two. So it’s quite possible to find beautiful cars with manufacturer warranties still in place and pay 35 percent to 50 percent less than the first owner did when purchased new.

I drove that car for four years, had very few out-of-pocket repairs, and sold it for $3,500.

So what kind of deal could you get today? When I was young, one of the dream cars was a Ferrari Testarossa, and its price was around $200,000. You can buy one now for around $50,000, and most don’t have that many miles on them because they’re babied by the owners.

Think in the Short Term (for Loans)

If you finance your auto purchase, you can save a lot of money by keeping the term to no more than 36 months. This builds equity in the car faster and saves on interest.

This might be difficult because the monthly payment is higher than if you finance over six years, and it’s higher than a monthly lease. If you finance $25,000 at 5 percent interest for three years, your monthly payment will be $749.27, and your total payout will be $26,974. If you extend that loan out to six years, your monthly payment drops to $402.62, but your total payout rises to $28,989. That’s $2,015 more out of your pocket to own the car.

Assuming you buy the car with a small down payment, by financing it for six years, your loan pay-down is going at a much slower pace than the depreciation on the vehicle, creating an “underwater” situation on the car almost from the get-go. During the three-year program, you’re paying down the car faster than it’s depreciating, giving you options if you have to sell the vehicle.

If you truly can’t afford that three-year payment, take out a five-year option and send a little extra every month toward the principal to pay it off sooner.

Leasing a newer model looks attractive because the monthly payment is less, but you might not want to do that. I’ll explain why next post, when I offer several other ways to save loads of money when purchasing an automobile.

Believe it or not you might be better off buying your own car rather than funding your 401k or IRA!

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It's a Doozie – The History of the Duisenberg Automobile Classic Motor Car

It can be said that many of the greatest things in life start off with humble beginnings. So is it with the Duisenberg Motor car. You may have heard the expression off times – "That's a Doozie" or "It's a Doozie". These are all references to a great car and car automaker of renown – the Duisenberg.

The Duisenberg began its life as the Auburn-Cord-Duisenberg. Ernest Lobban Cord began his career in the automobile industry in a most humble manner – as a simple repairer of model T Ford cars. It could be said that this start of the Duisenberg line met with even fairly mixed fortunes. – Mr. Cord said to have become a millionaire three separate times even before he reached the ripe and experienced age of 21 – losing his entire fortune fully each of the three times. Finally at the ripe old age of 30 years and with lasting and real wealth ,, Mr. Cord joined the failing Auburn company as its "general manager"., Bought a substantial share in the company and proceeded to bring Auburn back onto the path of financial security and wealth.

Aside from being obviously a clever engineer himself, Cord had the greatest ability and abilities to spot great talents and talents in others. As a result he spotted, hired and employed such classic notables and famous legends in the automobile trades as Gordon Buehrig, Harry Miller and Count Alexis de Sakhnoffsky. Next Mr. Cord promptly bought control of the Lycoming engine plant and the Duisenberg Company itself.

The Deisenberg brothers, Fred and August had originally begun by actually making bicycles in their adopted "home town" of Des Moines Iowa, before going into the sport of motor racing, building their first racing car in 1903. The Duisenberg Company itself was formed in 1912 to build race cars, and their success led inevitably to the manufacture of standard road cars. The first of the Duisenberg line of standard motor cars for the road and non-racing a driver was the Model A tourer. The Model A "Tourer" has been dated for the year 1920. It can be rightly said with truthfulness as well as knowledge that the Duisenberg road cars were more than heavily based on the knowledge and expertise gained from auto racing itself and were excellent examples of advanced engineering and automotive mechanical technologies of the time. The Duisenberg automotive product line quickly established a more than solid and well earned reputation on the roads just as the Duisenberg racing cars had collected a bevy of speed and racing records. Amazingly the Duisenberg racing group had taken the venerable race wins of Indianapolis in the years 1924, 1925 and 1927.

It can be said that Mr. Cord's tough leadership and empire-building ambitions had brought a most vital had brought a most effective combine into being and Auburn-Cord -Duisenberg proceeded to flourish in no uncertain terms. Unfortunately Cord's timing was particularly bad and all of his projects reached fruition in the same fateful year – 1929, the same year as the great stock market "crash". Miller, himself, patented his version of "Front Wheel Drive"

The following year – 1929 – in which for the first time the Cord nameplate itself was used – the L29 was introduced and released for sale. Designed by Carl van Ranst, it carried Miller's front axle setup. Next in line were such speedy and flighty cars as the Auburn Speedster which was had the distinction of being the first car line that stated and guaranteed that each car had been individually been speed tested to 100 miles per hour.

Hence the Duisenberg reputation as fine motor cars of great speed as well as beauty was born, cultured and maintained. It's no accident that the name Duisenberg carries such a reputation and notoriety among car aficionados.

The expression "It's a Doozie" has been well earned.

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